UFA, the capital of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Located in the central part of RB on the Pribelskaya Plain in‑between the Belaya, the Ufa and the Dyoma rivers. The city stretches 50 km from NE to SW. Territory — 707.9 km2. Population — 1,131.4 thous. people (2017). U. comprises Dyomsky, Kalininsky, Kirovsky, Leninsky, Oktyabrsky, Ordzhonikidzevsky, Sovetsky adm. raions and 24 rural settlements. The Ufimsky Raion administration is located in U.
Founded in 1586 (according to other data, in 1574) after the accession of Bashkortostan to Russia. Developed from the territory of the medieval Bashkir city which belonged to the Bashkir tribe called Min. The original name was Ufa Fortress. In 1586 it became a city and the adm. centre of Ufa Uyezd. In 1719 — adm. centre of Ufa Province, which was subordinated to the Senate. In 1781 — the adm. centre of Ufa Namestnichestvo. Between 1797—1922 — the adm. centre of Ufa Uyezd. At the same time, in 1802, it became the adm. centre of Orenburg Gub. Civil Administration (between 1865—1922 — the adm. centre of Ufa. Gub. Civil Administration). Since 1922, it has been the capital of the Republic. Convenient geographical location and logistical accessibility caused a high territorial concentration of both industrial enterprises and social infrastructure. There are more than 460 large and medium enterprises in Ufa. In 2016, the number of employees at these enterprises amounted to 469.9 thous. people. The city’s economy has a diversified production structure, including such industries as oil refining industry, petrochemical industry, mechanical engineering, woodworking industry, etc. In U., there are the following Russia’s largest refineries: Novoil, Bashneft–Ufaneftekhim, Ufaorgsintez and Ufimsky Oil Refinery. Building is well‑developed (ref. Construction): there are more than 50 building organizations. New commercial, social and housing objects (housing territory of the city amounts to 26.73 million m2) are being actively built in Ufa. U. is a transport hub with a well‑developed network of railways, roads, air routes and pipelines. There are: Ufa International Airport, Railway Station, Severny and Yuzhny intercity bus stations and 7 river crossings. Kuibyshev Railway [sections: Abdulino—Ufa, Karlaman—Beloretsk—Magnitogorsk, Dyoma—Tylgan (Orenburg Obl.), the Ufa Yuzhny railway bypass, Ufa—Kropachevo (Chelyabinsk Obl.), and Chernikovka—Blagoveshchensk Line], South‑Ural Railway (Ufa—Zlatoust) and such highways as Moscow—Ufa, Samara—Ufa—Chelyabinsk, Ufa—Orenburg, Ufa—Birsk—Yanaul, Ufa—Inzer—Beloretsk, etc cross the territory.
The geopolitical location has a positive impact on the development of foreign economic and international relations. The SCO and BRICS summits were held in U. in 2015.
- is a scientific, educational and cultural centre of the RB. There are: the Academy of Sciences of the RB, the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the RAS, R & D institutes, etc, 228 pre‑school educational institutions, 128 general education schools, including 25 lyceums, 20 gymnasiums and a boarding school; approx. 30 vocational schools, 28 higher educational institutions (incl. branches and representative offices), as well as 46 institutions of supplementary education, including 12 educational museums, 2 painting schools, 3 schools of arts, 2 palaces of culture, 27 centers for children’s activities, 4 centers for children’s creativity and 45 sports schools. There are 65 health institutions in U: 20 hospitals, including the Republican Clinical Hospital, Republican Children’s Clinical Hospital, Emergency Medical Services Hospital, Eye and Plastic Surgery Centre, 5 health centers, 17 polyclinics, including 5 children clinics, 11 dental clinics, 1 maternity hospital, a perinatal centre, 4 obstetric units as part of the hospitals, cardiological and psychotherapy centers, a centre for medical prevention, a center for the prevention and control of AIDS and infectious diseases, a disinfection centre, 5 health resorts, etc. In U., there are 2086 sports facilities, including 5 stadiums; the Tramplin and Biathlon sports and fitness centers, 2 sports palaces, including Ufa‑Arena; the Akbuzat Racecourse Stadium, more than 47 swimming pools and 895 plane sports facilities.
- has a centralized system of children’s (20) and adults’ (29) libraries, incl. the Zaki Validi National Library; 7 theatres, incl. Bashkir Drama Theatre, Russian Drama Theatre, the Karim National Youth Theatre, Puppet Theatre, etc; Congress Hall Toratau, the Bashkortostan state concert hall, 12 cultural and leisure institutions, 12 art galleries, Actors’ House, 12 museums, a philharmonic, the Ufa Circus, a planetarium, 7 recreation parks, 9 cinemas and cinema installations, etc. Tuganlyk International Festival has been held in U. since 1991.
In U., there are: 12 mosques, 18 temples and churches, a synagogue, the Lutheran Church, 3 Protestant churches and prayer houses; creative unions, etc. Most of the RB Media is located in U.: Radio and TV channels, newspapers and magazines, incl. 22 republican mass media, etc. U. is a center of book publishing. There are: the Bashkortostan, Belaya Reka, and Kitap publishing houses. etc, as well as the Bashkir Encyclopaedia scientific institution.
There are several points of view among scholars regarding the origin of the city’s name, including the Turk. “uba” meaning “hill, mound”; “ufak” – “small”; the Ugric “foyo” – “river (in Turk. “khuva” means “water flow”); “upey” – a derivative from the name of the “Upey” Bashkir tribe, etc.