UFA BURIAL GROUNDS
UFA BURIAL GROUNDS, archaeological sites of the period from early Iron Age to early Middle Ages. Located on the territory of Ufa. There were discovered and explored approximately 40 burials, the first of which were found at the end of the 18th century. The Novo‑Ufimsky cemetery belongs to the Ananian and Kara‑Abyz cultures. Located at the intersection of Z.Validi and Aksakov streets and also, Gogol and K.Marx streets. It spreads around an area of more than 140 ha. It was studied between 1952–56 by R.B.Akhmerov, between 1960–61 by an expedition of the BSU. The dead are buried in the grave pits (with the depth of down to 1.5 m) on their backs, head pointing north, and feet pointing to the river. There were also found paired burials. For the husband, in the grave, there were weapons, a belt set, bronze hryvnia wrapped in gold foil; while for females, there was jewelry, and bronze mirrors.
In the 20s of the past century, there was found, on the territory of the BSMU, a burial ground of the Turbasly culture (ref. Archaeological cultures), which was studied in 1936 by M.I.Kasyanov. In the male burial ground, there were found fragments of chainmail, bone lining of bows, three‑sided iron arrowheads, fragments of silk fabric, and plaques‑sockets of gold foil. In the children’s section there were found silver, Hryvnia coins, as well as plates and fragments of ceramics. There was also a grave of a woman which was discovered in a deep (1.9 m) pit. She lay on her back, with her head in the direction of NE. Her face was covered with a veil embroidered with stars made of silver. There were found gold rings and medallions, decorated beading, openwork brooches and oval plaque, belt tips, drop‑shaped pendants, silver plaques, a bracelet, and fragments of red silk fabric. In 1939, during the excavation work on the territory of the Bashkir State Opera and Ballet Theatre two burials were found, which were further studies by B.A.Koishevsky and Kasyanov. The deceased were buried in deep (1.5 and 2.16 m) grave pits, stretched out on their backs, with their heads pointing towards south and southwest. In one of the burials, a coffin made from boards fastened with iron staples was found. The funeral inventory consists of a cornelian gem with the image of a woman playing the harp, gold pendants, plaques, bronze earrings in the form of balls, buckles, copper bracelets, pendants in the form of a bell; bones of animals. In 1946, during excavation work at the intersection of Socialist (now M.Karim) and Kirov streets, a burial ground from the 6–7th centuries was found; the deceased (with an artificially deformed skull) was buried lying on his back, with his head pointing N. Bronze vessel, plaques wrapped with gold foil and decorated with glass inserts, moon‑shaped plaques, ornamentation, and an embossed iron knife were found at the site. In 1987, during the construction work on E.Sazonov street, another burial site was discovered. In it, a yellow knife in a wooden sheath, wrapped in gold and silver foil was found. Also, 2‑compound fishing rods with bronze cheek pieces, bronze buckles, bronze pendants, bells, plaques covered with gold foil, with the image of a person’s face; a bronze plaque with images on the face of two, presumably, Roman soldiers in full arms. There was previous indication that there was a similar settlement in Ufa in the Iron Age. Materials of this site are now stored in the Museum of Archeology and Ethnography, National Museum of the RB.