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Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan State autonomous institution of science of the Republic of Bashkortostan Bashkir encyclopedia

INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION, a migration of species, subspecies, plant sorts or animal breed to the locations, where they have not been present before. Purposeful I. is used to increase biologic diversity, preserve gene pool of the organisms, enrich cultural flora, species and breed composition of domestic animals. Plant I. includes the selection of the source material, study of biological features, reproduction, acclimatization of introduced species and development of agrotechnical methods. Wheat, millet, barley and others are considered to be the earliest introduced plants in the South Ural, species of weed plants (cornflower, cockspur, treaclewort, etc) were introduced by accident together with them. I. of woody plants performed in arboretums. In 1965, the Shingakkulsky Steppe Arboretum Park was established. It is a natural monument, which houses more than 200 species and forms of woody plants. The Botanical Garden Institute has a large collection of woody plants (more than 700 species, variations and forms, more than 500 sorts). In 1975, the Arboretum of the Birsky branch of BSU was founded. It houses more than 1000 species, variations and forms. In 1995, the Berendey Children’s Arboretum Park was opened in Birsky Raion. Many plants have been successfully introduced in the Republic, including decorative plants (aster, iris, peony, etc), decorative cereals (canary grass, Elymus arenarius, etc), hardy-shrub species (blue spruce, ramanas rose, roughbark poplar, etc), tropical and subtropical species (cheese plant, African violet, etc), non-traditional fodder plants (goat`s rue, rosin weed, etc), aromatic plants ( species of basil, horse mint, etc), medicinal plants (garden sage, purple coneflower, etc), and rare plant species (Dianthus acicularis, Rhodiola iremelica, etc). Since the 1930s, the I. of highly productive agricultural animal breeds is performed in the Republic. The following milk cattle (Holland, Holstein and Black Spotted), meat cattle (Aberdeen Angus, Hereford, Limousin, and others), wool and meat (Texel, Duroc, Landrace) breeds, as well as Yakut horse, British Saanen milk goats have been successfully acclimatized. White amur, peled, silver carp, racoon dog, American mink, ondatra were introduced and then acclimatized. River beaver, maral, common marmot were reacclimatized.

Publication date: 23.06.2020
Last updated: 23.06.2020