MADRASSA, Muslim middle and higher educational institutions. The first M. in Bashkortostan appeared in the 2nd half of the 17th century. They came under the auspices of mosques, and on the mullahs initiative. M. depended on private donations and waqf funds (i.e. immovable and movable property intended for religious or charitable purposes). Initially, M. were governed by the Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly. However, since 1874 they were under the authority of the Ministry of Public Education. Galiya, Gusmaniya in Ufa, Mukhammadiya, Rasuliya (both in Troitsk), Khusainiya in Orenburg, etc are among the famous M. established in the 2nd half of the 19th century. In 1865, there were 814 maktabs and M. in the Ufa Guberniya. By 1913, their number reduced to 579 maktabs and 32 M. After the Revolution of 1917, most M. were closed while the rest of them were transformed into the Soviet unified national and labour schools. Nowadays, the following M. operate in Bashkortostan: Galiya, Khakimiya, a M. under the Russian Islamic University, a M. under the LyalyaTyulpan Mosque (all are situated in Ufa), the Nur al Iman M. in Sterlitamak, Nurul Islam M. in Oktyabrsky, Ikhlas in Tuymazy, etc.