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Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan State autonomous institution of science of the Republic of Bashkortostan Bashkir encyclopedia

NANOTECHNOLOGIES

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NANOTECHNOLOGIES, ways of creating nanoscale structures, imparting useful propertiesto materials and devices. Since the early 90s, research was initiated by IMSP and USATU to receive nanostructured materials using severe plastic deformation (in the quantity of several dozens to hundreds of units) in conditions of applying high pressure (up to several hPa), at relatively low temperatures. Received nanostructured materials with grain sizes of several dozens to hundreds of nm, with developed 3D grid of non‑equilibrium boundaries of grains of mainly high‑angle range and high density of introduced grain boundary dislocations. Unusual microstructure leads to increased strength, low‑temperature and/or high‑speed superplasticity, fatigue limit, wear resistance, sometimes to the so‑called paradox of plastic deformation – simultaneous increase in strength and plasticity with the growth of the degree of plastic deformation, change of fundamental physical properties. By 2008, high‑volume nanostructural states were developed in pure metals (copper, titanium, aluminum, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, etc.) and their alloys. The linear dimensions of billets, received by severe plastic deformation at equal‑channel angular pressing, all‑round forging, including in combination with deformational‑thermal processing and heat treatment, etc., reach dozens of cm. The prototypes of dental implants were produced from 3D nanostructured titanium in cooperation with foreign scientists. There are Chairs of N. at the universities, since 1995 — the Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials (IPAM), since 2007 – Technopark of Aviation Technologies, closely cooperating with UMPO (N. are already used in the production of aircraft engines of the 5th generation), Nanostructural Materials and High Technologies Scientific Educational Center, and Nanocenter. Training of specialists in the field of Nanoengineering is ongoing. Since 2007, IPAM has been the organizer of International Symposia 3D Nanostructural Materials: from Science to Innovations (approx. 300–350 participants from more than 25 countries).

Publication date: 24.08.2020
Last updated: 24.08.2020