THE REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN. GENERAL INFORMATION
The Republic of Bashkortostan, Bashkortostan (RB), the subject of the Russian Federation. Located in the southern Urals. In the North it borders on the Perm Oblast, the North-East — the Sverdlovsk Oblast, the East — the Chelyabinsk Oblast, the South — the Orenburg Oblast, the West — the Republic of Tatarstan, on the North-West — the Republic of Udmurtia. Included to the Volga Federal District. Area — 142.9 thous. km2. The population of the RB, according to Rosstat is 4,063.3 thous. people (2018), the average population density is 28.43 people/km2. The capital city is Ufa. The republic includes 54 municipal districts, 21 cities (Baymak, Belebey, Beloretsk, Birsk, Blagoveshchensk, Davlekanovo, Dyurtyuli, Ishimbay, Meleuz, Tuymazy, Uchaly, Yanaul), including city districts Agidel, Kumertau, Mezhgorye, Neftekamsk, Oktyabrsky, Salavat, Sibay, Sterlitamak, Ufa; 2 urban-type settlements (2018). Representatives of 130 nationalities live in the RB, the national policy, aimed at the comprehensive development of peoples of Bashkortostan, is being implemented. Most religious profess Islam, Orthodoxy.
Bashkortostan is among the early autonomous national republics of modern Russia. The autonomy of Bashkortostan (Bashkurdistan in that date) was proclaimed on November 15, 1917. The Agreement of the Central Soviet Power with the Bashkir Government on the Soviet Autonomous Bashkiria of March 20, 1919, regularized the foundation of Bashkir Soviet Republic. According to the Decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of June 14, 1922, Bashkortostan became the Autonomous Bashkir Socialist Soviet Republic. In the 2nd half of the 1920s Bashkortostan became the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. According to the Declaration of State Sovereignty of October 11, 1990, Bashkortostan became Bashkir Soviet Socialist Republic and since February 25, 1992, has the current name.
The legal status of the RB is determined by the Constitution of the RF, the Constitution of the RB and other regulatory and legal acts. The highest official is the Head of the RB. The highest representative and only legislative body is the State Assembly–Kurultay of the RB. The highest executive agency is the Government of the RB. The judical authority is represented by the Constitutional Court of the RB, local, federal and magistrate’s courts. Supervision over the implementation of the Constitution of the RF, the Constitution of the RB and the legislation is performed by the Prosecutor’s Office of the RB. Questions of the administrative and territorial system, the order of formation, changes and abolition of administrative-territorial units, the criteria for classifying the republics settlements as urban and rural settlements are regulated by the legislation of the republic. In the RB all forms of ownership are recognized and provided with equal protection. The Republic has its official state symbols, official languages.
Geographical location. The Republic of Bashkortostan is located in the east of the East European Plain and the Southern Urals, it has a favorable geographical position, which resulted in a unique combination on its territory of various relief forms, climatic conditions, soil, flora and fauna, as well as a wide range of minerals. More than 3 thous. deposits and fields are placed in republic, incl. 200 oil and gas fields, about 10 – lignite, 15 — copper-sulphide ores, more than 20 — iron ores, more than 50 — placer and ore gold. In the depths of Bashkortostan there are also bauxite, manganese, chromite, fluorite, pyrophyllite, zeolites, facing stones and ornamental stones, etc.
The western part of the republic is located within the south-eastern part of the East European Platform and the Pre-Ural regional trough; central and eastern parts — within the Bashkir meganticlinorium, Magnitogorsk megasynclinorium, Uraltau zone, Zauralsky peneplain.
A complex geological structure associated with the occurrence of groundwater. In the Volga-Kama artesian basin covering the platform area, the Pre-Ural marginal deflection and the West Ural folding zone are concentrated 63% of the potential fresh groundwater resources; 92.5% of the groundwater of this basin is collected for drinking and industrial needs.
The climate in the republic is moderately continental. The total solar radiation is 4089 MJ/m2 per year. Cyclonic activity and the western transfer of air masses determine the differences in the average annual amount of precipitation and sunshine duration, which is due to the different amount of cloud cover. Depending on the latitude and exposure of the slopes, the annual precipitation amounts are different: on the western slopes of the Urals it reaches 640—700 mm, on the eastern — 300—500 mm, in the western part of the republic — 400—500 mm. Features of the atmospheric circulation and the influence of the Ural Mountains determine the wind mode. In winter, cyclonic activity increases, southern and south westerly winds have the greatest frequency, in summer cyclones weaken, the proportion of northerly and northeastern winds increases. Average long-term max. temperature is noted in July (16.5—19.5°C), min. — in January (from -14 to -17°С).
Under conditions of a temperate continental climate, forest, forest-steppe, steppe vegetation was formed. Over 3 thous. species of plants grow, of which about 2.5 thous. are higher, represented by many annual grasses, trees and shrubs. Approx. 400 species of moss-like, 6 — pyreniform, 8 — horsetail, 30 — fern, 8 — gymnosperms, about 1700 — flowering plants are identified. There are rare plant species, many of which are listed in The Red List of the RB.
The fauna is represented by more than 18 thous. species of animals, incl. 120 species of unicellular, about 700 species of worms, 121 — mollusks, about 17,000 — arthropods (incl. insects), more than 50 — fish, 12 — amphibians, 10 — reptiles, 296 — birds, 85 — mammals. There are rare animal species.
Due to the nature of the surface, geological structure, climatic conditions and the diversity of landscapes, large geographical areas have been identified: the Bashkir Pre-Urals, the Bashkir (South) Urals, and the Bashkir Trans-Urals.
The Bashkir Pre-Urals covers the territory to West from the Ural Mountains to the administrative border of the RB (area is about 90 thous. km2). It is confined to the eastern outskirts of the East European Platform and the Pre-Urals regional trough. The Riphean deposits, represented by sedimentary and igneous rocks, lie at the base, the surface part is composed of sediments of the lower Permian.
Minerals are represented by oil (Arlanskoe, Tuymazinskoe, Shkapovskoe deposits, etc), natural gas (Musinskoye field), brown coal (Babaevskoye field), limestone (Shakh-Tau, Gumerovskoye field), rock salt (Yar-Bishkadakskoye field), etc.
The climate characterized by a pronounced instability over the years, a maximum precipitation amount in July (more than 65 mm), and a minimum in February (less than 25 mm). The winter is harsh with thaws, the average January temperature is -14.7°C. In summer, clear weather prevails, the average July temperature is 19.2°C. The surface waters of the Bashkir Pre-Urals are mainly related to the Belaya River basin (the rivers Ufa, Dyoma, Ashkadar, Urshak, Chermasan, Baza, etc).
Soddy-podzolic soils formed on the Buy-Tanyp interfluve and on the Western Ufa Plateau, dark gray forest soils, soddy-carbonate soils — on the Eastern Ufa Plateau, in the Southern territory – podzolized, leached, typical and ordinary humus; in places saline and salt marshes are common.
Here are distributed secondary birch-aspen forests. Coniferous and deciduous forests have been preserved on the Ufa Plateau and in heavily dissected areas of the Bugulma-Belebey Upland, as a result of which the forest-steppe has acquired a typical steppe appearance. Meadow forb-grass steppes are preserved on the slopes of ridges and hills. The white partridge, otter, wild boar, roe deer, fox, elk, and others live here. In the animal world, there is a marked increase in the number of Trans-Volga-Kazakhstan species: golden eagle, steppe eagle, corsac, steppe marmot, large jerboa, etc.
The Bashkir (South) Urals occupies part of the Ural Mountains from the latitude of Mountain Yurma (1003 m, Chelyabinsk Obl.) to the southern administrative border of the RB (area of about 36 thous. km2). The absolute height of Bashkir (South) Urals is 1640 m (Yamantau Mountain). In the northern part there are the highest ridges: Mashak with an absolute height of 1332 m (Shirokaya Mountain), Nary — 1327 m, Avalyak — 1185 m (Big Sharshalybiik Mountain), Zigalga — 1427 m (Bolshoy Shelom), and also the Bolshoy Iremel Mountain with an absolute height of 1582 m.
Bashkir (South) Ural is rich in iron (Tukanskoye and Arshinskoye deposits), polymetallic ores, gold, barytes (Kuzhinskoye deposit), fluorite (Suranskoye deposit), magnesite (Kzyl-Tashskoye and Ismakaevskoye deposits), rare earth elements, decorative and ornamental stones (granite, quartzite, marble, porphyrite, serpentinite, rhodonite, jasper, etc).
The climate formation of the western and eastern slopes is influenced by the meridional position of the Urals. The average annual amount of precipitation is 600—700 mm in the West, 450—500 mm in the East, 350—400 mm in the South. The average January temperature in the West is -15.5°C, in the East -16.5°C, in the mountains -17.0°C; July is about 18°C, 17.5°C, 16°C, respectively.
At Iremel-Yamantau-Yuzhnouralskiy waterworks originate rivers Yuryuzan, Ay, Ural, Small and Big Kizil, Sakmara, Belaya, Small and Big Nugush, Big and Small Inzer, Sim and others. The soils are thin with light texture, mountain gray forest, mountain humus, mountain forest sod-podzolic soils, etc. Forest cover 76%. There are 4 girdles: the forest-steppe mountain (up to a height of 600 m) is represented by a combination of meadow steppes with oak-linden forests in the West and birch-aspen forests in the East; mountain forest (up to a height of 1200 m) — deciduous forests in the west, pine and secondary birch forests on the eastern slopes, fir and spruce forests in the central part; subalpine girdle (up to the height of 1400 m) — oak and deciduous woodland in combination with meadow glades; goltsy altitudinal belt, or mountain tundra (above 1400 m), with a predominance of moss and lichen, dwarf willow, juniper, etc. In the mountains and in the Western territory landscapes are represented by broad-leaved (elm, linden, maple), dark coniferous forests, in the East — light coniferous (larch, pine) forests; the slopes of the ridges are covered with thickets of steppe cherries, Caraganas. In the South, mountain forest is spread. The fauna is represented by taiga-forest (wood-grouse, three-toed woodpecker, hazel grouse, chipmunk, pine marten, flying squirrel, elk, brown bear, etc) and steppe (turtle dove, brown hare, korsak, steppe marmot, hamster, etc) species.
The Bashkir Trans-Urals occupies a narrow strip along the eastern border of the RB. Natural frontiers on the West: the ridges Uraltau (to the latitude of the Beloretsk), Kryktytau, Irendyk, the valley of the Sakmara River. The area is about 17 thous. km2. It is confined to the western wing of the Magnitogorsk megasynclinorium. The relief is denudation, medium and low mountain in the west, flat and ridge-hilly in the east.
The area is rich in copper-sulphide ores (Oktyabrskoye, Podolskoye, Sibayskoye, Uchalinskoye, Yubileinoye deposits), manganese (Kusimovskoye deposit) and chromium (Krasovskoye deposit) ores, gold (Mindyakskoye and Murtykty deposits), and jasper (Nauruzovskoye deposit).
The formation of the climate of the Bashkir Trans-Urals is influenced by the position of the territory in the “barrier shade” of the mountains, the availability of the Siberian continental and the transformed tropic air masses from Kazakhstan and Central Asia. The average annual amount of precipitation in the northern part is 350—400 mm, in the southern part — 270—300 mm. Winters are cold and snowless, with an average January temperature of -16°C; Summer is warm and arid with an average July temperature of 18—21°C, droughts and dry winds are frequent (14—15 days a year). The hydrographic network is formed by the Ural River with tributaries Big Kizil, Sakmara, Tanalyk and others; Uy River; lakes Urgun, Bannoye, Muldakkul, Chebarkul, Atavdy, Talkas, Kultuban, etc. The soils change from west to east, from thin coarse skeletal humus to leached fully developed humus, from north to south, from gray forest soils to typical, southern, ordinary, and alkaline humus. Flora and fauna is represented by transitional forest and steppe species. Light coniferous and small-leaved species dominate in the forests. On the slopes of the ridges and hills, feather-grass, fescue and grass steppes are preserved. There live wood grouse, white partridge, wild boar, roe deer, fox, lynx, steppe marmot, ground squirrel, etc.
The nature of the republic is experiencing a powerful anthropogenic load associated with agricultural and industrial production, the development of transport and tourism infrastructures. In the field of nature protection in the republic there are measures to protect the environment and improve environmental safety. To reduce industrial waste, radioactive contamination of the biosphere, chemical contamination, etc, waste-free technologies, biological waste-water treatment, biotechnical methods of plant protection, resource-saving technologies, environmental standards, biological indication, and environmental monitoring are being developed. The SPNA system includes: a biosphere reserve (Bashkir Ural), 3 wildlife reserves, a national park (Bashkiriya), geopark Yangantau, 4 natural parks (Asylykul, Iremel, Kandrykul, Muradymovskoye Gorge), 27 reserves, 182 natural monuments.
The territory of the modern republic has been mastered by man since ancient times, as evidenced by the archaeological cultures and numerous archaeological sites formed here. The population of the South Urals mentioned by the ancient Greek historians Herodotus as argippei, Ptolemy — as pasirtai. The first mentions of the territory of Bashkortostan and the Bashkirs appear in the 9th century in Arabic written sources (in the writings of Ibn Rusta, Ibn Fadlan, Ibn Hordadbeh, Idrisi, Sallam Tardzhuman, etc). At the beginning of 2 thous. AD alliances of the Bashkir tribes were formed. At the beginning of the 13th century the territory of Bashkortostan was part of the Ulus Juchi of the Mongolian Empire, then the Golden Horde, after its collapse – the Kazan, Siberian Khanate, the Nogai Horde. The process of joining Bashkir tribes to the Russian empire was a long but voluntary act. It lasted from the middle of the 16th century to the early 17th century. At the end of the 16th century, the Ufimsky Uyezd was formed (ref. Administrative and territorial system). In the 1st half of the 18th century, the Orenburg Expedition was organized to strengthen the eastern borders of the Russian Empire, during which fortresses of the Orenburg fortified line were built on lands seized from the Bashkirs. In 1744 the Orenburg Guberniya was formed. Increased colonization of the region, violations of patrimonial Law of the Bashkirs by the central and local authorities, increased taxes and duties caused mass uprisings of Bashkirs in 1645, 1662—64, 1681—84, 1704—11, 1735—40, 1755—56 (ref. Bashkir Uprisings of the 17—18th centuries), as a result of which the government abandoned plans to transfer the Bashkirs to the category of serf peasants, forcible Christianization, confirmed their patrimonial right to the land. The Bashkirs took an active part in the Peasant War of 1773–75, as part of the troops led by Bazargul Yunayev, Karanay Muratov, Kinzya Arslanov, Salavat Yulayev, and others. After the suppression of the armed uprisings, the government revised the land policy in the guberniya.
In order to study the territory and population of the Russian Empire, the Academy of Sciences and Arts in 1768–74 organized Academic expeditions, which included a comprehensive survey of nature, economy and peoples. In 1798 a canton system was introduced in the province, which existed in parallel with the county-volost system Bashkir army was created. In the Patriotic War of 1812 and the foreign campaigns of the Russian army participated 20 Bashkir regiments, formed and staffed fully by Bashkirs. The fearlessness of Bashkir warriors is immortalized not only in Bashkir legends and songs, but also in the memorial complexes of Borodino, in Germany and France.
In the middle of the 19th century, the Ufa Gub. was singled out from the Orenburg guberniya. After the Peasant Reform of 1865 increased settlement movement from the central and western guberniyas of Russia to the Urals and east. Zemstvos (district councils) were created everywhere, as a result of which local self-government was formed, the network of libraries, schools and health centres was expanded, and settlements, roads, etc were surveyed. The abolition of serfdom accelerated the economic development of the country, construction of railways, flour mills, leather, glass, gold mining and other enterprises began, as well as the widespread development of trade. Private printing houses and bookstores are being opened in Ufa, Orenburg, Sterlitamak, Birsk, Belebey, and publications on Turks are beginning to be printed in the Shark publishing house.
Late 19th century – beginning of 20th century was marked by the intensification of social and political life in the country, the emergence of various political parties and public organizations, the spread of their influence among the population. The defeat of Russia in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05 was one of the reasons for the growing discontent of the population with the policies of the state and the armed uprisings in the guberniyas (ref. Revolution of 1905–07). The main outcome of the social upheavals of the early 20th century the introduction of a constitutional monarchy, the government granted freedom of speech, press, unions, abolished the redemption payments of the peasants; a decree on religious tolerance was issued, the policy of Russification of national suburbs was softened. For the first time in the history of Russia was convened a representative institution – the State Duma.
The aggravation of the socio-economic and political crisis in the country due to military defeats, economic devastation and other factors caused the 1917 revolution. The Bashkir Central Shuro was formed, proclaiming the national territorial autonomy of Bashkortostan on November 15, 1917, the Bashkir government and the Bashkir army were formed. The republic was recognized by the central Soviet authority with the Agreement of the central Soviet power with the Bashkir government on the Soviet Autonomous Bashkiria of March 20, 1919. During the Civil War, a fierce power struggle unfolded on the territory of Bashkortostan between representatives of the Bashkir national movement, the Bolsheviks and supporters of the old order.
Under the conditions of war communism, the peasant insurgency of 1918–21 unfolded in the republic. As a result of the famine of 1921–22, the population of the Bashkir Republic and the Ufa Gub. declined by 650 thous. people (22% of the total population). In the cantons, special commissions of Bashkiropomoshch acted for the provision of material and medical assistance.
With the establishment of Soviet power, the People’s Commissars and other bodies are created, the work of enterprises, medical and sanitary, educational and other institutions is being restored.
In 1921, the reorganization of the republic's industry management began on the basis of the new economic policy (NEP). The state provided assistance to the peasantry in the form of seed loans, loans for the purchase of agricultural machinery, working livestock, implements, the organization of handicrafts, etc; allowed the use of hired labour, the rent of the means of production. In 1922 Bashkortostan handed over to the state 5 million 841 thous. pounds of bread. 140 enterprises were leased in the republic, 45 of them to private individuals. Enterprises that remained privately at the beginning of NEP were not subject to nationalization. The transition to the planned economy of the country led to the complete contraction of NEP to the beginning of 30s.
Since the autumn of 1929, mass creation of collective farms began in the BASSR, at the same time — the repressions against wealthy peasants who resisted collectivization. By the end of 1931 there were 3,566 collective farms, uniting 65% of all poor-middle peasant farms. In total, about 25.5 thous. peasant farms were dispossessed in the republic.
By the resolution of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR On the development of industry in the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of October 28, 1930, factories and other enterprises began to be actively built in the republic. In total for the 1st Five-Year Plan (1928–32), 35 new plants, factories and power plants were built. The gross output of industry increased 2 times, its share in the national economy increased (in 1928 – 21%, 1932 – 50%). In 1933–42 new industries arose, technical re-equipment of old enterprises, railway transport was carried out, river transport was updated, etc. The Ishimbayevo-Ufa Oil Pipeline, the Ufa-Ishimbayevo Railway, the Ishimbay Refinery and the Ufa Cracking plants (ref. Bashneft—UNPZ) were built, the production of aircraft engines was mastered; the ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and the woodworking industry were further developed. Industrialization determined accelerated urbanization, led to an increase in the number of workers and employees, an increase in the standard of living, education, etc. In 1930, the Bashkir Scientific Research Institute was opened, on the basis of the departments of which the institutes of national culture, pedagogy and pedology, BashNIPIstrom, the Research Institute of Health and Hygiene, and the socialist reconstruction of agriculture were created. The transition to a new alphabet of the Bashkir language was carried out. Professional and amateur choral, instrumental groups are created in the republic. The foundations of a professional school of composition were laid; the Opera and Ballet Theatre, the Bashkir Philharmonic Society were opened, the unions of Composers, Architects, Writers were created. In 1935, for success in the development of industry and agriculture, the republic was awarded the Order of Lenin.
In June 1937 the 10th All-Bashkir Congress of Soviets adopted a new Constitution of the republic (1st, adopted in 1925, was not approved by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee). In 1937 mass political repressions took place, during which many representatives of the political elite, the scientific and creative intelligentsia, and leaders of the Bashkir national movement were arrested and killed.
During the Great Patriotic War, the BASSR became one of the main regions of the country in accommodating evacuated enterprises and people, providing the front with weapons, fuel, food and equipment. In 1941–42 more than 170 evacuated enterprises, individual shops and installations, hospitals, a number of central state and economic bodies, 278 thous. refugees were located. During the war years more than 575 thous. fighters were sent to the front from the BASSR (17.8% of the population of the republic), of which about 322 thous. people died. 6 rifle, 2 cavalry (incl. the Hundred and Twelfth Bashkir cavalry division) divisions, rifle brigade, 8 mortar, 2 cannon, howitzer, artillery regiments and other formations were formed (re-equipped) in Bashkortostan. For courage and heroism, about 300 people born and drafted from the republic became Heroes of the Soviet Union (M.G.Gareyev — twice) and full holders of the Order of Glory.
The post-war period is characterized by high rates of development in the republic of the oil-producing, oil-refining and chemical industries. At the beginning of the 50s BASSR on oil production occupied the 2nd, in its processing – the 1st place in the USSR. In 1952–53, the Ufa and Sterlitamak oblasts were selected during the experiment on disaggregation of the middle administrative territorial units in the BASSR. After the war, the transition of the national economy to peaceful construction was completed by the end of 1946. In the early 50s the republic took the 2nd place in oil production, and the first place in the USSR in processing. In the middle of the 50s it is also becoming one of the centres of the chemical and petrochemical industries. In 1953, the gross industrial output increased by 6 times as compared with 1940. In agriculture, the task of achieving the pre-war level of production has come to the fore. The Soviet government allocated funds to strengthen the technical base of MTS and state farms, which made it possible to increase the tractor and combine park, respectively, by 16% and 41%.
After the exposure of the Stalin personality cult at the 20th Congress of the CPSU (February 1956), the unreasonably repressed were rehabilitated, the works of many convicted writers and poets became available.
In 1954–60, during the development of virgin lands in the BASSR, more than 660 thous. ha of virgin and fallow lands were plowed, new state farms were created. In 1957, to commemorate the voluntary accession of Bashkortostan to the Russian state for its achievements in the development of industry, agriculture and culture, the republic was awarded the Order of Lenin.
Significant development in the BASSR was in the oil, mining, machine-building, and other industries, especially rapid – oil production and refining. The construction of enterprises of the chemical and petrochemical industries has increased. Production of polyethylene, plastics, carbamide, herbicides, ammonia, rubber, fertilizers, soda ash, etc was mastered. The chemical industry has become one of the leading sectors of the national economy. Mass housing construction was launched. In 1969, for success in the communist construction, the BASSR was awarded the Order of the October Revolution; in 1972 for the merits of the working people in strengthening the fraternal friendship and cooperation of the Soviet peoples, great success in economic, socio-political and cultural construction and to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the USSR – the Order of People’s Friendship. In the 80s there was a decrease in the growth rate of gross industrial output, a drop in the level of production. By the mid-1980s, the BASSR occupied the 10th place in the RSFSR in terms of industrial development, the 3rd in agriculture and one of the last places in the development of many branches of the social sphere. In the 2nd half of the 80s, with the beginning of the implementation of the new socio-economic and political course of “perestroika” in the USSR, significant changes occurred in the public life of Bashkortostan. The proclamation of openness and a multiparty system created the conditions for the intensification of informal and national democratic movements.
On October 11, the Supreme Soviet of the BASSR adopted a Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Bashkir Soviet Socialist Republic. The declaration proclaimed the state sovereignty of the republic throughout its territory and transformed the BASSR into the BSSR – Bashkortostan. Since February 25, 1992, the Bashkir SSR became known as the Republic of Bashkortostan. On March 31 in Moscow was signed the Federation Agreement and it’s Annex from the RB. The presidential government was introduced. In the 1990s, despite the economic crisis in the country, it was possible to preserve the industrial and agricultural potential of the republic.
The territory and geographical position, the natural resources of the Republic of Bashkortostan have created favorable conditions for the formation of a diversified economy. The republic is in a well-developed zone of the country, at the junction of the Volga and Ural economic regions and has optimal transport links.
The republic occupies 0.8% of the territory, 2.9% of the population of the RF lives in it, there are produced over 3.6% of industrial production and 4.5% of the country's agricultural products. The largest oil refinery and petrochemical complex in Europe operate in Bashkortostan. OAO Sterlitamaksoda is the world leader in soda production. Leading positions on the Russian market are occupied by Nefaz buses, products of OOO Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat, OAO Polyef and the only polyester production complex in Russia (Blagoveshchensk). Trolleybuses, helicopters, aircraft engines, machine tools, truck-mounted concrete trucks and much more are produced. Power engineering, food, light, forest and woodworking, medical, printing and publishing, construction materials industries have received high development. The industry is specialized primarily in the production of raw materials and semiproducts. Over 90.0% of the industrial potential is concentrated in the central, southern, western and northwestern subdistricts of the republic.
The discovery of oil and oil-gas fields and its development contributed to the development of industrial potential. Oil refining received a powerful development in connection with the construction of the Novo-Ufimsky Refinery (ref. Bashneft—Novoil), the Salavat Petrochemical Combine, the Ufa Refinery named after the 22nd CPSU Congress (ref. Bashneft–Ufaneftekhim), Ufa Synthetic Alcohol Plant (ref. Ufaorgsintez), Sterlitamak Synthetic Rubber Plant (ref. Synthez-Kauchuk). The chemical and petrochemical industries include organic and organochlorine synthesis, synthetic resins, plastics, rubbers, soot, rubber products, varnishes, paints, household chemicals, etc. Oil refining is concentrated in the Ufa and Sterlitamak-Salavat industrial hubs.
Instrument-making, machine-tool, electrical engineering, metal structures and products of the industry, chemical and petroleum, tractor and agricultural engineering began to develop at a higher rate after the creation on the basis of the enterprises evacuated during Great Patriotic War from the western regions of the country: Ufa Aggregate Enterprise Gidravlika, UAPO, UMPO, Sterlitamak Machine-Tool Plant, Red Proletarian Plant, Beloretsk Plant of Springs and Bow Springs, Blagoveshchensky Valve Plant, Ishimbay Machine-building Factory, etc. Established enterprises of serving the oil, chemical and petrochemical industry (Salavatneftemash, Geofizpribor Ufa Production Association, etc). The engineering specialization has become more consistent with the structure of the needs of the national economy, and more specifically the production of process equipment for engineering, oil production, gas, oil refining and petrochemical industries (INMASH, Iskra, Ishimbay Machine-Building Plant, Oktyabrsk Oil Field Equipment Plant). Due to the creation in the Volga region of complex enterprises of the automobile industry, in Bashkortostan were built subcontracting enterprises as VAZ and KAMAZ satellites — Avtonormal Belebey Plant, Tuymazy Concrete Motor Truck Plant, NEFAZ. In the late 1970s there are Sterlitamak Machine-Building Plant for the production of agricultural machinery and the Ishimbay Transport Machine-Building Company Vityaz open.
The electric power industry system of RB combines thermal power plants (60.1%), hydroelectric power plants (0.5), electric (25.3) and heat (9.4) networks, boiler houses (4.6), and other power plants (0.1%).
Forest resources are among the main wealth of the republic: the total forest area is 5.7 million ha (2017). Forests are mainly concentrated in the eastern and northern parts of the republic. Out of the total volume of wood logging industry, more than 80% is processed at woodworking enterprises (sawmilling, plywood, matchbox, tare production) and pulp and paper industries. Chemical and chemical-mechanical processing of wood is carried out by Amzinsky Lesokombinat. The main capacities for wood processing (about 70% of production) are concentrated in the central economic subarea, and in the Urals and north-east — only about 20%. The republic is widely involved in the interregional distribution and exchange of forest products. More than 70% of plywood, matches, tare, furniture produced in the RB is exported outside of its borders. Wood-based panels, furniture, industrial wood is imported.
The most ancient industries in the republic — ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy — have been developing on its territory since the beginning of the 18th century. The share is small, but the republic takes the leading place in the country by their products. There are the Beloretsk Metallurgical Plant mining and processing plants (located in the Ural economic subarea). The food industry unites 15 branches located mainly in industrial centres, in the cities of the central, southern, and western subdistricts. The oldest are the enterprises of the bakery, flour-and-cereals and mixed feed, brewing, distillery, fish, oil and fat, butter and cheese, confectionery, fruit and vegetable industries, soft drinks production.
Agriculture of the republic is more specialized in live-stock breeding products; the leading industry is cattle breeding. At the end of 2018 in RB agricultural products produced in the amount of 152.2 billion rubles, which amounted to 3% in the total Russian production (8th place in the ranking of Russian regions), incl. per capita — 37.4 thous. rubles (32nd place). In 2017, the area of agricultural land in the country amounted to 7.3 million ha, of which 3.6 million ha is arable land. In the structure of gross output, the share of production of households of the population is 51.3%, agricultural household’s enterprises — 37.4%; peasant (farmer) — 11.0%. In 2017, the RB took the 1st place among the regions of the RF in the number of cattle (1,028 thous. heads, of which 424 thous. cows), beef production (196 thous. t), kumys (3.2 thous. t), commercial honey (5.4 thous. t); the 2nd place — in the production of milk (1,718 thous. t) and greenhouse vegetables (94.2 thous. t), 3rd place for horses (121 thous. heads), 5th – by potato production (978 thous. t). The gross output amounted to 171.8 billion rubles; production volume (thous. t) of: milk — 1,718, meat — 410.2; eggs — 1120.7 million units, wool — 2,085 t, commercial honey — 5,390 t.
Exports of products (grain, mixed fodder, sugar, flour, vegetable oil, whole milk products) were produced to $26 million. Traditional for the Bashkir branches have been preserved and developed: horse breeding, bee-keeping.
There are 703 agricultural enterprises, more then 6300 peasant (farmer) farms and individual entrepreneurs, and 1125 processing enterprisesin the republic. In the agro-industrial complex of the RB, 21 priority investment projects worth more than 67.1 billion rubles (2017) are being implemented. Among the major investment projects implemented are the construction of a modern pig complex with a total capacity of 42 thous. t of pork in live weight per year (Bashkir Meat Company), a selection and hybrid centre for the production of two-breed pigs and commodity pigs with a capacity of 42 thous. heads per year (Ufa Selection and Hybrid Centre), a workshop for the production of mixed feeds with a capacity of 10 t/h and an elevator for 24 thous. t of storage (Blagovarsky Poultry Farm), creating a single egg grading site and increasing the production of commodity chicken eggs (OAO Bashkirskaya Poultry Farm), construction of a greenhouse complex on 2.5 ha (Alekseevsky), a dairy plant with raw milk processing capacity of 150 t/day (OOO Ufagormolzavod), an oil extraction plant with a processing capacity of sunflower seeds 1200 t/day and the elevator in the Selo Mayachny of the Kumertau (both — OOO Elevator).
Transport. The transport network of RB includes about 34.0 thous. km of roads, about 1.5 thous. railway and more than 50 tram tracks, 160 trolleybus lines, about 1 thous. water navigation routes, about 10.0 thous. km of main pipelines. Railway transport in the transport system of Bashkortostan takes the 3rd place in cargo transportation (14.5%) and the 2nd place in freight turnover (24.0%). The operational length of public railway tracks passing through the territory of the republic is about 1.5 thous. km, about 120 enterprises have their own rolling stock and access roads (over 600 km). The highways of the Kuibyshev, South Ural and Gorky railways pass through the republic. Road transport occupies the 1st place in passenger transportation and passenger traffic. The total length of the roads of the RB is about 34.0 thous. km, incl. general use — 25.7 thous. km. The main roads on the territory of the RB are Moscow—Ufa, Samara—Ufa—Chelyabinsk, Ufa—Inzer—Beloretsk, Ufa—Yanaul, Kushnarenkovo— Chekmagush—Bakaly, and others. The main river transport route is the Belaya River and its tributary — Ufa River, along which sand, gravel, oil products, fertilizers, salt, and bulky cargoes are transported. In RB, the total length of inland waterways is about 1,000 km. Air lines connect the republic with cities in Russia and the near and far abroad. Since the late 80s in the RB international flights are carried out. Sending passengers, cargo and mail is carried out by Ufa International Airport. 70.5% of the republic’s cargo turnover comes from pipeline transport; the movement of goods is 67.2%. A significant part of the republican pipeline transport is located by a steel ring uniting all the oil areas and refineries of Bashkortostan in operation, which makes it possible to regulate the flow of oil to the republic’s plants and its further supply to the East — to Siberia and Kazakhstan, to the South — to the Orenburg Obl., to the West — to the Samara Obl., Tatarstan, the central part of Russia and beyond.
Connection. There are satellite television, IP telephony, IP television, video conferencing, high-speed Internet access, payment terminals and ATM systems using wireless communication technologies, etc.
Constructing is carried out by specialized general constructing (road-building, construction and installation, repair and construction, etc), design, design and survey organizations of the republic: about 200 large and mediumsized, about 5 thous. small enterprises in total. In 2017, the volume of work performed in the construction industry amounted to 190.1 billion rubles, residential buildings were commissioned with a total area of 2,460.5 thous. m2 (8th and 6th places among Russian regions, respectively). Housing and communal services are represented by housing, water, gas, heat, power, waste water, road-bridge and hotel enterprises. Centralized water supply operates in all cities, 40 villages and 1,946 rural settlements. Most of the water pipelines of RB receive water from underground sources. Maintenance of water supply and wastewater systems in the republic is carried out by local governments; sanitary inspection of the quality of drinking water – district and city institutions of the sanitary-epidemiological service of the republic. Natural gas coming from Western Siberia (more than 95%) is of decisive importance in gas supplying the republic.
The hotel industry of the RB has more than 200 hotels, incl. built in Ufa for SCO and BRICS summits in Ufa hotels of the international level Hampton by Hilton Ufa, Hilton Garden Inn Ufa Riverside, Holiday Inn Ufa, Sheraton.
The activities of trade and public catering enterprises are aimed at creating conditions for the most complete satisfaction of the population’s need for high-quality and safe goods and services at affordable prices. In terms of retail trade turnover (841.1 billion rubles), RB ranks 9th place among the constituent entities of the RF (2017). In 2017, more than 10.5 thous. enterprises operated in the sphere of household services of the republic, which provide more than 1 thous. types of services.
In 2017, consolidated budget revenues amounted to 201.0 billion rubles, of which (%): tax and non-tax revenues — 165.3, gratuitous transfers — 35.7.
In 2018, the following regional banks operated in the republic: PAO Bashkomsnabbank, OOO PromTransBank, AO Sotsinvestbank, as well as branches and representative offices of banks (Sberbank of Russia, UralSib, Ural Bank of Reconstruction and Development, Gazprombank, AK BARS, Rosselkhozbank, Promsvyazbank, VTB, MTSBank, etc) from other regions of the RF.
Tourism and business. The main directions of the implementation of the state program Development and support of small and medium-sized businesses in the Republic of Bashkortostan (2015) are the provision of financial support for the creation of their own business, the implementation of small business investment initiatives, the implementation of measures to improve the prestige and popularization of entrepreneurial activities, etc. The most attractive areas for business are: trade, real estate operations, rental and provision of services (incl. tourism), construction, paid services, manufacturing, and agriculture. In the republic in 2015, there were 46.4 thous. small, 0.5 thous. medium-sized enterprises, 76.3 thous. individual entrepreneurs, about 137.0 thous. people are employed in the business sphere, incl. 66.4 thous. wage earners.
Since 2011, the republic has been implementing the sub-program Development of social tourism in the Republic of Bashkortostan, aimed at providing senior citizens, disabled people, the poor and orphans with tourist services at discounted prices. In 2016 in Ufa was opened a multidisciplinary information and tourist centre Ufa, the main tasks of which are to expand the range of tourist services for the population and increase the incoming flow of tourists to the city and the republic. In 2017 in Bashkortostan 7 tourism and recreation clusters were formed for the development of domestic tourism, differing in tourism specialization, climatic conditions and the level of socio-economic development of the accommodation area, among them Asly-kul, Burzyansky, Kandry-kul , Legend of the Urals, Nugush, Pavlovsk reservoir, Ufimsky.
Investments. The main directions of state investment are the construction and reconstruction of social facilities, the development of infrastructure of technically complex life support systems. The largest share of investment-active enterprises is recorded in the following areas of activity: mining of minerals (except for fuel and energy), oil refining, and agriculture. In terms of investments in fixed assets (260.9 billion rubles), the RB ranks 16th place among the constituent entities of the RF (2017). The investment fund of the RB is formed mainly at the expense of Russian residents; investors – 10–15%.
The Republic of Bashkortostan is one of the multinational subjects of the RF. After the annexation of Bashkortostan to Russia, the territory was settled by alien populations. On the terms of allowance on the patrimonial lands of the Bashkirs settled Tatars, Chuvashs, Mari, Mordva, and others. According to census data, the population in Bashkortostan (thous. people): in 1926 was 2,665.8; 1939 — 3159.0; 1959 — 3336.6; 1970 — 3814.9; 1979 — 3844.3; 1989 — 3943.1; 2002 – 4,104.3; 2010 – 4072.1. In terms of population, the RB ranks the 7th place in the RF and the 1st place in the Volga Federal district.
The reproduction of the population of the Republic is characterized by a modern type (low birth rate and mortality). In 2005, the birth rate of the RB ranked 3rd (10.8‰) in the Volga Federal District, in 2017 – ranked 1st. Natural population growth in 2017 to 2,483 people the total fertility rate was 1.696; natural population decline – 1,072 people. In the 2000s net coefficients (the replacement rate of the maternal generation by the subsidiary) rose to 1; children replacing their parents are 20—30% smaller in number. The highest life expectancy of the population (70.5 years) was achieved in 1990. In 2017 the average life expectancy for men is 59.92 ages, women — 73.16 ages; the average age of residents of the RB was 38.6 ages (men — 36.2, women — 40.7). The average life expectancy in cities is higher than in rural areas, there is a tendency to equalize the indicators by increasing the life expectancy of the population in rural areas. In Bashkortostan, the share of the urban population in 2016 was 61.8. The urban population of the republic is concentrated in the cities of Neftekamsk, Oktyabrsky, Salavat, Sterlitamak, Ufa; Ufa, Sterlitamak-Salavat agglomerations formed. In 1923—2010, the urban population increased 12.9 times, and the rural population decreased 1.6 times. The number of employed population amounted to 1,915.1 thous. people (63.7%).
In Bashkortostan, the development of education is associated with the penetration of Islam, which was accompanied by the spread of mektebs and madrassas. Since the 20s of the 18th century educational institutions were opened with instruction in Russian language in Ufa (verbal and digital schools) and Orenburg (Tatar students school and engineering school). In the mid-1930s, the first government educational institutions were established for the non-Russian population (Arab and Kalmyk schools in Orenburg), in the 1950s – mining and industrial schools and colleges. In the middle of the 19th century in Bashkortostan, the education system included military, mining, spiritual, medical, pedagogical, agricultural, technical, legal, commercial, craft and other forms of education. In 1913 in the Ufa and Orenburg guberniyas there were 3,439 primary (222.8 thous. students), 35 secondary (12 thous. students) and 36 special (3.9 thous. students) educational institutions.
After the establishment of Soviet power, educational institutions were nationalized and transferred to the jurisdiction of the NK Enlightenment. All types of lower and secondary vocational schools were transformed into a single labour school, dividing it into 2 levels. In 1919, the first preschool institutions opened. National schools were created. In the mid-1930s, education was organized in educational institutions in 12 languages. In the 1930s, there were 15 pedagogical technical schools (in 1938 they were reorganized into pedagogical colleges), the Pedagogical Institute named after K.A.Timiryazev, Bashkir Institute of Continuing Education Personnel. In 1941 there were 4,867 primary, incomplete and secondary schools (627 thous. students), 58 technical schools and colleges (16 thous. students), 7 universities (3.3 thous. students). During the years of Soviet power in the republic, the task of eradicating illiteracy was solved, a universal primary (by 1933), seven-year-old (by 1953) and secondary (since 1976) education, formed a unified system of continuous education.
The education system of the republic includes all levels of general (pre-school, primary, basic, secondary), vocational (secondary vocational, higher), additional education. There are 1,353 general education and boarding schools, 77 gymnasiums, 56 lyceums, 36 state correctional schools and boarding schools, 104 vocational schools and lyceums, 17 orphanages (2018). The training of specialists with higher professional education is carried out by 8 state, 2 private independent higher educational institutions (ref. Universities). The number of faculty members of state and non-state universities is 5,240 people, incl. 875 doctors and 3,278 candidates of sciences (2018).
The development of scientific research in Bashkortostan is closely related to the industrial development of natural resources. In the 2nd half of the 19th century, there are scientific societies and organizations that are engaged in the study of natural phenomena, the collection of statistics and historical materials. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, scholars from the Bashkirs appeared who studied the history, culture, and folklore of the Turkic peoples of the region (M.Biksurin, S.Kuklyashev, M.S.Umetbayev, M.Gafuri, R.F.Fakhretdinov, A.A.Validov and others). At the beginning of the 20th century the first scientific institutions were founded that conducted research in the field of medicine, veterinary medicine and agronomy.
The Academcentre was founded in 1922, the task of which was to study the region, organize public education, etc. Since the beginning of the 50s, research in the field of ethnology of Bashkirs, Bashkir philology, literature, as well as geology and other sciences has been conducted at the institutes of the Ufa Federal Research Centre, branch and specialized research institutes. The Academy of Sciences of the RB was established in 1991.
The scientists of the republic have developed the scientific foundations of petrochemical processes, resource and energy saving technologies, environmental improvement, and a set of measures to improve soil fertility, new high-yielding varieties of rye, peas, wheat and other crops have been developed. Scientists have identified the main laws of the geological structure of the earth's crust and provided an assessment of the territory of Bashkortostan for various types of minerals. Significant results were obtained in the field of immunology and biotechnology, ophthalmology, occupational health, abdominal, cardiovascular, regenerative and minimally invasive surgery, oncology, obstetrics and gynecology, medical genetics, infectious diseases, pharmacy, etc. The theory of ethnocultural processes of the Volga-Ural historical and ethnographic region has been developed, the folklore of the peoples of Bashkotostan has been studied, the genesis of Bashkir literature and culture has been studied, new archaeological sites have been discovered and investigated, etc. The results of scientific research provide for the release of regional encyclopaedias.
Fundamental and applied research in the main areas of technical, natural, socio-economic and humanities is carried out in more than 20 institutes of academic profile, over 20 sectoral research institutes, about 30 design institutes, 10 independent design bureaus, as well as at university departments. In the field of science and higher professional education, there are more than 10 thous. scientific and pedagogical workers, among them 2 academicians, 7 associate members of the RAS, 1 associate member each of Russian Association of International Cooperation, Russian Academy of Education, Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 25 academicians and 45 associate members of the AS RB, more than 950 doctors and about 6 thous. candidates of science.
The State Award of the RB in the field of science and technology (since 1999) and the honorary title Merited Worker of Science of the RB (until 1990 – Merited Worker of Science and Technology of the BASSR) were established. There have been developed scientific schools, scientific journals are issued, a system of information and editorial-publishing providing science (ref. Bashtekhinform, Bashkir Encyclopaedia) has developed.
The first medical institutions in Bashkortostan appeared in the middle of the 18th century at mining plants and at the Bashkir Army. In 1876 the Gub. Zemstvo Hospital was founded, by the end of the 19th century – a network of medical centres, kumys therapy clinics appeared. The main thing in the development of Soviet healthcare in the republic became the state nature of medical care, its accessibility, free, preventive orientation. By the end of 1919, 60 medical institutions was opened in the Republic, later in Ufa tuberculosis and venereal diseases dispensaries were opened, anti-malarial station; Ufa Eye Hospital was reorganized into the Bashkir Scientific-Research Trachomatous Institute (ref. Eye Disease Institute). Compared with 1913 the incidence of typhoid fever reduced in 4 times, smallpox – 3 times, significantly reduced the incidence of typhus, diphtheria, syphilis, etc. In the 30s Research Institutes of Skin and Venereology, Phthisiology, Health and Hygiene were opened, the development of resort areas began, sanitary and pharmacy services organized. The incidences of smallpox, cholera, etc were eliminated. Before the beginning of the Great Patriotic War there were 182 hospitals, 413 outpatient clinics, polyclinics and health centres.
The health of the population is one of the priorities of the social policy of the region. The medical care of the population is provided by healthcare institutions and private medical institutions. In total, the state public health sector of the republic has 34 outpatient clinics, 96 hospital complexes, including 51 central district hospitals and 42 district hospitals, 176 medical ambulatories, 2,072 medical obstetric centres, 687 households and 3 offices of a general practitioner (2017). Informatization has been introduced in the healthcare system: an electronic record is made to the doctor, registration of disability sheets, online consultation, the Unified Medical Portal, in which residents of the republic are given access to their electronic medical card data through a personal account.
The recreational cluster unites 30 resorts of the republic, in which, along with medical procedures, balneal, hydro, kumys treatment, and traditional medicine methods are used.
State policy in the field of social protection of the population aimed at improving the living standards of the most vulnerable categories of citizens in need of state support. In 2015, the State institutions of social protection of the population (ref. Republican Centre of Social Services) 1.2 million citizens provided more than 70 types of social support measures of 13.4 billion rubles. More than 160 (incl. 118 non-state) organizations provided social services to 331.6 thous. citizens, which is 99.8%. In the Republican Rehabilitation Centre for Children and Teenagers with Health Limitations, etc, more than 12.5 thous. children received assistance. Together with volunteers, public organizations for people with disabilities, associations of parents of children with disabilities, charitable foundations, more than 100 events were organized and held, in which more than 15 thous. children and teenagers with disabilities took part.
Since 1955, research and treatment of occupational diseases have been conducted at the Occupational Medicine and Human Ecology Institute; the achievements of the Eye Disease Institute and other medical institutions are widely known. Scientists are actively involved in the work of medical scientific societies, provide advice to republican and interdistrict consultative and diagnostic centres to provide specialized medical care to the population.
PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT
In the early 20s in Ufa opens the first in the republic House of Physical Culture with the halls of struggle and weightlifting. In 1923, the Higher Council of Physical Culture and Sport was formed under the Bashkir Central Executive Committee, which coordinated the scientific, educational and organizational work on the physical education of the working people. In 1923, the 1st All-Bashkir Olympiad took place in Ufa, the program of which included basketball, cycling, gymnastics, athletics, swimming, tennis and Tatar-Bashkir national games. In 1946, in Ufa a youth sports school opened, which trained high-class athletes – members of the USSR, RSFSR and BASSR national teams. The foundations were laid for the development of mass sports in the republic (volleyball, football, hockey, athletics). In 1962 in Ufa a sports complex Tramplin with jumps (critical power – 10, 26, 40, 60 and 90 m) was opened, which gave impetus to the active development of Nordic combined and ski jumping in the republic. Since the end of the 50s motorsport began to develop in Bashkortostan. Various sports are developed in the RB: ice hockey, volleyball, football, swimming, athletics, biathlon, tennis, fencing, etc. The system of sports education includes about 130 sports schools, incl. children and youth, Olympic reserve, as well as sports sections in institutions of additional children's education. Since 1988, athletes from Bashkortostan have appeared at the Paralympic Games as part of the country's national team, the first winner of the gold medal among representatives of the republic was R.A.Batalova. In 1992 in Ufa was created the volleyball team Oilman of Bashkiria (ref. Ural), representing Bashkortostan at the Russian championships among men’s teams. Since 1994, the Republican Festival on National and Popular Sports has been held annually in Ufa in honor of the Day of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The festival hosts competitions in arm wrestling, weight lifting, kuresh, and is attended by national teams of cities and regions of the RB and athletes from other regions of the RF.
In 2000 in Ufa on the basis of the stadium Stroitel was created a Sports Club named after G.Kadyrov (ref. Centre of Technical Sports named after G.Kadyrov). In 2006, the Office for the organization and conduct of sports events in RB was formed. In 2007, one of the largest sports facilities in the republic was built in Ufa – the universal sports arena Ufa-Arena, which became the base of the hockey team Salavat Yulaev. In 2010, the football team Ufa was created, which is the flagship of Bashkir football. The republic regularly hosts major international competitions in various sports. The European Championships (1996) among juniors and the world (2013) among youth in ice hockey, the European Championships (2003, 2010, 2013, 2016–17) in ice racing, the World Championships (2006, 2012) in summer biathlon took place in Ufa , World Championship (2007) and World Cup (2012) Belt Wrestling, European Championship (2009) in Biathlon, World Championships in International Drafts among Women (2010) and Men (2013); also Winter International Children’s Games (2013), World Cup and European Ice Climbing Championship (2014), Hockey Stars’ Week with participation of Continental, Youth and Women’s Hockey League (2017) players held in Ufa; the world polyathlon championships (2002) and belt wrestling (2013) were held in Salavat; in Uchaly – European Championship (2007) on ice racing; in Oktyabrsky – World Belt Wrestling Cup (2011). In 2013, the Sochi 2014 Olympic Torch Relay took place in Ufa, in which 401 torchbearers participated, the length of the route was about 87 km. In 2014, the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Torch Relay Stage took place in the capital of the republic, with 51 torchbearers participating and a route of about 5 km.
A healthy lifestyle, physical education and sports are popular among the population, it contributes to the development of a network of fitness centres, gyms, health and fitness and alpine skiing complexes. Sports tourism, diving, hiking and horseback riding, skiing and snowboarding are very popular.
CULTURE AND ART
The people’s of Bashkortostan preserved a rich traditional culture, one of the most striking forms of which is folklore. Oral folk art is characterized by multi-genre and multidirectional. Bashkir folklore is distinguished by a close organic connection of folk music with verbal forms, traditions of solo singing, reading and playing music (ref. Sesens), improvisation. The Republican Centre of Folk Art is working to preserve and develop the folklore of various nations living in the region; folklore festivals, master classes on the reconstruction of ceremonies and folk holidays are held. The collection and study of folklore materials is carried out by scientists of the BSU, BSPU, Institute of History, Language and Literature and the Institute for Ethnological Studies.
The origins of Bashkir literature go back to oral folk art (ref. the epics Akbuzat, Ural-Batyr, etc), on the basis of which artistic and literary thought developed. The evolution of Bashkir literature is directly related to the social-historical events and the spiritual life of the people. There are 8 stages in its development: ancient Bashkir literature (from ancient times to the 12th century); Bashkir literature of the Bulgar period (12 – the middle of the 13th century); Bashkir literature of the Kipchak period (the middle of the 13th – the 1st half of the 16th centuries; ref. Asan Kaygy, Idukey and Muradym, Yirau, etc); Bashkir literature of the Russian period of the middle of the 14–18th centuries (ref. Baik-aydar, Gabit-sesen, Salavat Yulayev, Sesen, etc); Bashkir literature of the 1st half of the 19th century (Buranbay-sesen, Sufism, etc); Bashkir literature of the 2nd half of the 19th century (Akmulla, M.I.Umetbayev, R.F.Fakhretdinov, etc); Bashkir literature of the early 20th century (Sh.Babich, M.Gafuri, A.M.Tagirov, D.Yultyi, etc); Bashkir literature of the Soviet period and the modern literature (A.Kh.Abdullin, N.Asanbayev, B.G.Bikbay, R.T.Bikbayev, F.M.Bulyakov, M.A.Burangulov, R.Ya.Garipov, A.Genatullin, M.Karim, N.S.Musin, Mergen Kirey, R.Nigmati, A.Khakim, etc).
Bashkiria is the birthplace of Russian and Russian-speaking writers – R.V.Pal, A.P.Filippov, G.G.Shafikov, K.F.Ziganshin and others. S.T.Aksakov, V.I.Dal, D.N.Mamin-Sibiryak, L.N.Tolstoy and other Russian writers wrote about Bashkiria and Bashkirs. The modern literature of Bashkortostan is represented in works in the Bashkir, Russian, Tatar, Chuvash and Mari languages, and the literary magazines Belskiye Prostory, Agidel, Tulpar, Shonkar are published. The Union of Writers of the RB unites 275 people (2017).
Book business in Bashkortostan originates from hand-written books and early printed books. In the 1st quarter of the 19th century appeared the first printed books in Russian, issued typography Orenburg separate housing. The first newspaper in the Orenburg Guberniya was founded in 1838. The first books on the Turks in Ufa began to be published by the Shark printing house in 1905. After the revolution of 1917, private printing houses were nationalized, and the Bashkir book publishing house and the system of the Soviet press were created on their basis.
The Respublika Bashkortostan publishing house, the Bashkortostan, the Bashkir Encyclopaedia, the Belaya Reka, the Kitap publishing houses, and others operate in the republic (ref. also Polygraphic Industry).The mass media of the RB are represented by newspapers and magazines, radio and television broadcasting, informational agencies, cinema, sound and video recording agencies (ref. also Children’s printed products, Youth’s printed products). Newspapers and magazines are published in Bashkir language, Russian, Tatar, Udmurt, Chuvash, and Mari languages.