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The regional interactive encyclopedic portal «Bashkortostan»
Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan State autonomous institution of science of the Republic of Bashkortostan Bashkir encyclopedia

URBAN DEVELOPMENT

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URBAN DEVELOPMENT. U.d. in Bashkortostan begins after the accession of Bashkortostan to Russia, when in the central and north western areas of the region there begins construction of fortresses and fortifications. The first project plans of Ufa (1803, 1809, 1819; were done by architect V.I.Geste and eng. V.K.Smetanin), and the cities of Sterlitamak, Birsk, and Belebey then develop architecturally in the traditions of Russian urban development style of the 19th century. At the end of 1920s beginning of 1930s raion planning is introduced, providing for comprehensive development of industrial centers, including the planning of Ufimsky and Chernikovsky raions (1931–32) with the principle of a linear city structure being the main idea of it. Between 1938–39, there were developed general plans for the cities of Baymak, Sterlitamak, and Ishimbai. In 1939–40, the techno economic rationale for planning Sterlitamak Ishimbay industrial region on the principle of a uniform development of these cities is created.

In the postwar years, the most intensively developing areas become those of oil production and refining, and cities of Octyabrsk and Salavat are built. Beginning in the 50s three beam and half ring layouts are used (the towns of Chernikovsk and Oktyabrsk). When adjusting the general plans for the cities of Beloretsk, Sterlitamak (both in 1947), Ishimbay (1949), Kumertau (1955) and others, special attention was paid to the development of a common urban center, the reconstruction of historically established areas, the planning of the suburban area, etc. On the vacant territories of the cities, residential neighborhoods are built between 1959–65 with approx. 4.3 million m2 of living space. Towards the beginning of the 1960s, in Bashkortostan, there were 17 cities and 38 villages of urban type (the so called PGT). The basis of the existing territorial planning structure are mutually perpendicular transportation axes: the railway Moscow–Ufa–Chelyabinsk and Ufa–Orenburg and the local economic axis of Bashkortostan which is Ufa, Sterlitamak, Salavat, and Ishimbay develops meridionally in the direction towards Neftekamsk. The main direction in the concept of urban settlement becomes the principle of limiting the growth of larger cities and promoting growth of medium and small cities and towns. Regular construction in villages and rural towns began in the 1950s. Concentration of agricultural production in certain areas has led to the consolidation of farms and the reduction in the number of villages and populated areas from 7,299 (in 1959) to 4,641 (in 1994). In the 60–80s there were developed drafts of a recreation area on the Pavlovsk Reservoir (1969), the regional planning of the BASSR (1972, 1983), and the Neftekamsk, Ufa and Sterlitamak group of raions (1988, 1992). Also, the development scheme and location of tourism facilities (1983) was developed. Since the 90s, general plans were dominated by decentralization of settlement systems: the city would now be considered a whole unit which would include the nearest suburb.

Since 1998, information technologies have been introduced into the organs of architecture and main cities and raions of the Republic. Technologies for providing urban planning

activities: such as the Monitoring and Regis- ter of Incomplete Construction Objects software packages, as well as geoinformats the Ingeo system, on the technological basis of which a system of legal regulation of the development of Ufa was formed, and large scale digital vector maps of Beloretsk, Neftekamsk, Salavat, Ufa, etc were compiled.

Publication date: 21.05.2020
Last updated: 17.03.2021
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