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The regional interactive encyclopedic portal «Bashkortostan»
Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan State autonomous institution of science of the Republic of Bashkortostan Bashkir encyclopedia


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KARST, a set of processes and phenomena arising in natural water soluble rocks. It is characterized by a complex of underground (caves, caverns, passages, etc) and surface (funnels, depressions, etc) forms of relief, peculiarity of circulation and regimen of karst waters, river network and lakes. The conditions of K. development are determined by physical‑geographical and hydro‑geological features of the area (climate, regimen of supply and flow of water, relief, geol. structure, etc).

Karstification of the territory in the platform part of Bashkortostan due to the prevalence of carbonate and sulfate rocks and temperate climate reaches 50%. By nature of the relief in the territory of the Republic there are low‑mountain, midmountain and plain K. Plain and lowmountain K. is common in the Bashkir Urals: sulfate bridged‑within the limits of the Pribelsk Rolling and Wavy Plain; primarily covered — in the Ufa‑Sim and the Urshak‑Belsky interfluves; carbonatesulfate covered — on the right bank of the Belaya River, in the Belsky‑Dyoma and the Ufa‑Belsky interfluves, in the area of the towns of Tuymazy and Oktyabrsky, in the valleys of rivers Kuyurgaza, Shaytanka and Sukhail; buried — in the area of the cities of Ufa and Blagoveshchensk; carbonate — on the Ufimskoye Plateau; limited — on the Belebey Upland. Technokarst develops under the influence of the anthropogenic factor. Failures and subsidence of soil are common on the Ufimsky Karst Declivity, in the cities of Ufa, Birsk, Blagoveshchensk, Davlekanovo, Tuymazy, etc. Many karst funnels are filled with water, thus lakes are formed (Asylykul, Kandrykul). Lowand mid‑mountain carbonate covered and bridged K. have developed in the Bashkir (South) Urals; unique Kapova Cave, Sumgan, Kinderlinskaya Cave, Kuperlinsky Karst Bridge, the Stone Gate Rock, one of the world’s largest Krasny Klyuch Spring, Sarva Karst Lake, etc, have developed as a result of the karst process. Plain carbonate covered and buried K. are common in the Bashkir Trans‑Urals, as well as sulphide K.

Publication date: 06.07.2020
Last updated: 06.07.2020