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Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan State autonomous institution of science of the Republic of Bashkortostan Bashkir encyclopedia

PUGACHYOV, Yemelyan Ivanovich

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PUGACHYOV, Yemelyan Ivanovich [1740 (according to other data, 1742), Zimovyeyskaya Stanitsa, the Province of the Don Cossack troops — 10.1.1775, Moscow], Leader of the Peasant War of 1773—75. Participant of the Seven Years' War of 1756—63 and the Rus.-Turkish War of 1768—74. After the defeat of the 1772 Yaik Cossacks Uprising, he convinced them to escape to Zakubanye. Arrested on charges of treason. In May, he fled. In August, he appeared in the villages of the Yaitsky Cossack Troops. Under the name of the deceased Russian Emperor. Peter III organized a new Cossacks' uprising. September 27th, the P. brigade (approx. 800 people) defeated the team of Brigadir Kh.Kh.Bilov (more than 400 people) and seized several fortresses. Since October 5th, he headed the siege of Orenburg, which lasted for approx. six months. For the purpose of administration of the uprising, which had engulfed the South Urals and Volga region, he established, in Berdskaya Sloboda, the Privy Council and the Military Collegium, which ruled the Main Rebel Army. He advocated the foundation of the Cossack and Peasant State headed by a fair tsar, the policy of whom should have been aimed at satisfying the social interests of the people. In manifests and decrees, which were widely spread among peasants, Cossacks, Bashkirs, etc, he called for faithful service to the new Gosudar (Sovereign), promised the abolition of serfdom and alloting of land among the people, and religious freedom. On September 8th, 1774, he was captured by conspirators in the Volga steppes and handed over to the authorities. Executed.

Publication date: 05.10.2020
Last updated: 12.04.2021