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Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan State autonomous institution of science of the Republic of Bashkortostan Bashkir encyclopedia


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BIRSK  BURIAL  GROUND,  an  ar­chaeological site of the Bakhmutinskaya culture (ref. Archaeological cultures). Dated to be from the 4–8th centuries. Located on the outskirts, south of the town of Birsk on the right bank of the Belaya River. Discovered in 1901 by A.A.Spitsyn, was studied in 1958–60, 1962, 1978, 1981, 1983–85, 1990–91 by N.A.Mazhitov. Approx. 700 burials of the early (4th – beginning of the 6th centuries) and late (6–8th  centuries)  groups  were  studied. Early burials occupy northern and north­ eastern parts of the burial ground. The dead are buried in small grave pits, stretched out on their backs, with their heads placed in the  direction  of  the  NW. The funeral inventory comprised bronze, butterfly­-like brooches, temporal pendants in the form of a question sign with a closed ring, hryvnia coins, rings and wire bracelets; bronze, iron and silver round, oval and v­shaped buckles, and beaded necklaces. Male burials were characterized by the presence of bark boxes with female ornaments, knives, awls, etc (the so­called sacrificial complexes). Later burials are located in the southern parts of the burial ground (the graves of the 6–7th and 7–8th centuries are territorially de­ limited). The deceased were buried in deep grave pits, stretched out on their backs, with their heads placed in the direction of NW, but sometimes there were deviations with heads in the N or W. Earthen vessels with food were found at the top of the headboards. Near some graves, there were found ritual burials of horse heads, feet, and hides. Ceramics were represented by vessels coming from the Bakhmutinskaya, Kara­-Yakupovskaya, Kushnarenkovskaya and Turbaslinskaya cultures. The funeral in­ ventory was female ornaments, armaments, horse harness accessories, and belt sets. In 2 late burial grounds Khorezm silver coins were found determined to be from the mid. 8th century, in 1 – a bronze pendant in the shape of a rider. In the southwestern area, on the edges of the artifact there were discovered burials of the Pyanoborskaya culture (dated to be from the 2–3rd centuries). The B.b.g. reflects the process of settling of the Urals  by  the  tribes  of the Bakhmutinskaya, Kara-­Yakupovskaya, Kushnarenkovskaya and Turbaslunskaya cultures.  Materials  obtained  from  this artifact are stored in the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography, BSU funds.

Publication date: 20.03.2020
Last updated: 11.03.2021