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The regional interactive encyclopedic portal «Bashkortostan»
Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan State autonomous institution of science of the Republic of Bashkortostan Bashkir encyclopedia


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BASHKIR ETHNIC SONG is mostly the product of the individual art of quaray players, poets­improvisators, sesens and other ethnic performers. Baits, kubairs, kyska-kuy, munazhats, lamentations, uzun-kuy, khalmak-kuy, chastushkas, songs­insertions to epics, such as Akkhak-kola, Zayatulyakand Khyukhylu, Karayurga, Kungyrbuga, fairytales, book chants in literature, such as “Mukhamadiya”, “Yusuf and Zuleykha” etc. as well as ono­ matopoeic songs, rural, recruit and vagabond songs are E.s. There are child (game, lullabies, joke­songs, bywords, tongue-twisters) and youth (for round­dances) songs. Bashkir E.s. are little connected with fables and legends, the musical tradition, improvisation and variety of melodies dominate in them: from the short, formula, ritual accompaniment to the richly ornamented and intonationally very beautiful melodies of uzun­kuy (Buranbay, Zyulkhizya, Kamalek); E.s. have different mode systems, however pentatonic is a basic mode (Raven’s nestling, Bird-cherry tree with large bunches, Six yegets); it has free irregular rhythms (Ilyas, Kakhym-turya, Butisov colonel); it has periodic and stanza form of chant. A . A . Alyabyev began collecting and studying Bashkir ethnic music in the 1st part of the 19th c. G . K . Yenikeyev registered approx. 500 Bashkir and Tatar E.s. in 1889–93. He has made a system in handwritten collection called “Bashkir and Tatar songs” (published in 2015 in Ufa by A.M. Kubagushev under the name “Gaysa Yenikeyev’s heritage”). The first major publication of Bashkir E.s. is in Music and songs of the Ural Muslims and their household descriptionby S.G. Rybakov. G.S. Al­ mukhametov, M.M. Valeev, S.Gabyashi, K.K. Ibragimov, A.S. Klucharyev, I.A. Kozlov, K.Y. Rakhimov, I.V. Saltykov, M.I. Sultanov, A.A. Eichenwald have been collecting and studying the samples of Bashkir musical folklore since the beginning of the 20th c. Eichenwald was the first to analyze mode and intonational peculiarities, rhythmic special features of uzun­kuy genre development. K.F. Akhmetov, Z.G. Ismagilov, R.A. Murtazin, R.B. Salmanov, G.Z. Suleymanov as well as composers evacuated from Moscow, Lenin­ grad, Kiev to Ufa, such as F.Y. Kozitskiy, N.I. Peyko, A.E. Spadavekkia, L.B. Stepanov, N.K. Chemberdzhi had been collecting the samples of Bashkir E.s. Bashkir ethnic songs and naigryshesbook by L.N. Lebedinskiy des­ cribes the uzun­kuy genre taking “Zulkhizya” song as an example. It also states the common principles of musical style and structure of Bashkir streaming songs. The research was continued by K.S. Ikhtisamov and R.F. Zelinskiy. Musicologists L.P. Atanova and F.K. Kamayev have described the peculiarities of streaming song melody, rhythmic and com­ positional patterns of musical folklore samples. “Bashkir ethnic song” monograph by M.P. Fomenkov studies the epic, song genres and means of musical expressiveness of Bashkir E.s. From the 1990s to the beginning of the 21st c. N.V. Akhmetzhanova, D.Z. Valeev, Y.I. Gaynetdinov, R.T. Galimullina, G.S. Galina,

R.S. Suleymanov, F.A. Nadrshina, A.M. Kubagushev, S.R. Salmanov, L.K. Salmanova, etc. had been collecting and studying E.s.

G.S. Galina

Publication date: 06.04.2021
Last updated: 06.04.2021