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The regional interactive encyclopedic portal «Bashkortostan»
Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan State autonomous institution of science of the Republic of Bashkortostan Bashkir encyclopedia


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СHILDRENS  FOLKLORЕ,  artistic  and diverse reservoir of verbal and musical­drama folk art Bashkirs, Belarusians, Mari, Mordo­ vians,  Russians,  Chuvash  and  other  ethnic groups, leaving their roots in depth of centuries and the common at the junction of the 2nd and 3rd millennia in a somewhat modified form in connection with the permanent socio­-economic and political changes in society. Russian folklore texts were first published (selectively) by I.P. Sakharov (“Тales of the Russian people”, 1837), A.V. Tereshchenko (“Life of the Russian people”, 1848) , and E.A. Avdeeva (Collection children’s fairy tales, 1844). In the second half of the 19th century, K.D. Ushinsky, P.A. Bessonov, A.F. Mozhars­kiy, E.A. Pokrovsky, and others drew attention to the educational significance d. f. With the 20­ies of the 20th century the fees involved O.I. Kapitsa, G.S. Vinogradov, A.N. Martynov, V.P. Anikin, A.F. Belousov and etc. On the territory of Bashkortostan, D.F. began to be recorded in folklore expeditions from the 2nd half of the 20th century. L.G. Barag, Kirey Mergen, I.E. Karpukhin, А.М. Suleymanov, R. A. Sultangareeva, L.A. Afanasieva, and others. ” (1994, 1996; comp. I.G. Galyautdinov and others), “Bashkir folk children’s books games” (2002, 2006; comp. Galyautdinov), “Children’s game folklore” (2007; comp. Suleymanov), “I am a child of nature” (2001; comp. Sultangareeva; all – Ufa), “Children’s folklore” (in the book “Chuvash dialectology. Chuvash oral folk art. Cultural linguistics”. Sterlitamak, 2016; comp. Afanasieva, N.S. Karpova, L.V. Korotaeva) and others. The problem of living life of the Russian Doctor of Philology in the multi­ethnic envi­ ronment of the Republic of Belarus is consid­ ered Russian Russian children’s folklore in Bashkortostan“, monograph “The state of Rus­ sian children’s folklore in the multiethnic world Bashkortostan at the turn of the XX–XXI centu­ ries”. According to Anikin’s classification, D. F. is divided into 1) genres of adult folklore that are creatively adapted and enriched by the chil­dren’s environment: anecdotes, nicknames, rid­dles, fairy tales, horror stories, sadistic poems, tall tales, nicknames, etc.; 2) children’s folklore itself: album poems, teasers, colloquial collu­ sions, role­playing games, mirilki, molchanki, rhymes, poddevki, jokes about school, chants, parodies of literary works and songs; 3) folklore for children, which is performed by the mother or other adults. This category of D.F. includes lullabies, pestushki, nursery rhymes, jokes, etc. (see also Small humorous genres).

Lullaby (from “shake” – shake to sibiti the cradle; bash., tat. of sangaldak, Bishek jyry; Belaru­sian. of kalyhanka song; mar. – multime Muro­vlak, chuv. – bulk arricam, etc.). The main purpose – to lull and to lull a child, expressing thoughts and feelings of pestoni (mother, grand­mother, nannies) about themselves and the fu­ ture life of the baby. By their nature, lullabies are syncretic, since in the process of their per­ formance they merge into one rhythmic whole living word, melody and movement. For ex­ample: “Alli­-Bally will he /Soon to sleep he will go, /When you grow big /to Be a real man” (bask.: “Ellie­belly iter ul, /Tissen iclap Keeterul, /USA etep, Suhr bulges, /Cache bulup Keeter ul”); “Bye, bye, night­night/Buy van boots /Nadeem on legs /let the path” (eng.); “A­ah, tell my brother: / “don’t cry, don’t cry! / Here’s mummy it will come, it will come, / A full skin of milk will bring, / Here it will come, / Daddy squirrel meat will bring” “ (udm.: “O­o­o, karoz mynam abyzikae: /“en boards, en boards! /Tanya anicked bertos uk, bertos uk,/Says Tyros Lele waes, /Taani but bertos UK, /Ataked conly mom waes”) etc. Al­ located to 5 groups: 1) with the mythological (anthropomorphic) images (dream, dreamer, pomon, Babai and others); 2) with the names of lull boys and girls; 3) without the names of the babies, but with references to domestic and wild animals, birds and fishes that they took partici­ pation in the sickness of the child; 4) addressed to an unnamed boys­sons, girls­daughters, grandchildren; 5) songs for dolls, in which girls act as mothers. The elements that unite DF and adult folklore are the multi­age composition of creators, the character system, the use of com­ mon artistic and expressive means, forms of performance and perception, and a household function designed to promotephysical, mental and aesthetic development of the child from its cradle to youth. In the poetics of D. F. in the conditions of polyethnic Texts and variants re­ flecting the new time appeared in Bashkorto­ stan. Modern D. F. has not escaped the influ­ ence of literature, movies, and cartoons. Clearly visible co­creative artistic interaction with Rus­ sian similar folklore of the Bashkirs, Tatars, Mari, Chuvash etc. peoples of the Republic of Belarus. For example, out of 192 published in the collection “Russian children’s folklore in Bashkortostan”, Tatar women (19), Ukrainian women (16), Bashkirs (12), Chuvash women (10), Moldavanka (5) and Mordovians (2) sang.

I.E. Karpukhin

Publication date: 08.04.2021
Last updated: 24.08.2021