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Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan State autonomous institution of science of the Republic of Bashkortostan Bashkir encyclopedia

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CULT OF ANCESTORS

CULT OF ANCESTORS, religious veneration of the souls of the deceased ancestors. With Bashkirs, it was an element of traditional pre‑Islamic beliefs. Having changed, it partially survived and found reflection in the various aspects of culture. Faith in the inextricable connection with ancestors contributed...

GAZPROM TRANSGAZ UFA

GAZPROM TRANSGAZ UFA, OОО. Performs transit transportation of natural gases to the CIS countries and to the countries of Western Europe, gas supply to the consumers of the RB, construction and reconstruction of the gas transmission system of the Republic, maintenance of the facilities of   gas   supply ...

HISTORY OF THE BASHKIR LITERATURE

HISTORY OF THE BASHKIR LITERATURE, a fundamental edition written by a group of authors in the Bashk. language and published in 6 volumes between 1990—96. The Russian language edition consists of 4 volumes and has been published since 2012. Chief Editor — G.B.Khusainov. The 1st volume is dedicated to...

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION, a migration of species, subspecies, plant sorts or animal breed to the locations, where they have not been present before. Purposeful I. is used to increase biologic diversity, preserve gene pool of the organisms, enrich cultural flora, species and breed composition of domestic animals....

MADRASSA

MADRASSA, Muslim middle and higher educational institutions. The first M. in Bashkortostan appeared in the 2nd half of the 17th century. They came under the auspices of mosques, and on the mullahs initiative. M. depended on private donations and waqf funds (i.e. immovable and movable property intended...

MAMMALS

MAMMALS (Mammalia), a class of vertebrates. There are about 20 orders known with more than 4500 species. In the RB there are 85 species of 6 orders (rodents, hares, insectivores, artiodactyla, chirop- tera and carnivores). Their bodies, have the length of 4 cm to a few meters, is covered with fur. They...

MASIM-KHAN

MASIM-KHAN, the Khan of the Union of Seven Bashkir tribes in the 2nd half of the 15th century. Known from folk sources, esp. from the Babsak and Kusyak epic. According to the Bashkir legends, the M.Kh. headquarters were in Masim (near Selo Starosubkhangulovo of Burzyansky Raion of the RB). Buried in...

MAYKY-BIY,

MAYKY-BIY, the leader of the Tabyn tribe. Prior to the election of Genghis Khan as the Great Khan, he was part of his personal security, later he became one of his commanders. As Member of Genghis Khan elder son Juchi’s army, he participated (presumably, in 1207) in the conquest of Siberia and Kazakhstan....

MAYSTRENKO, Valery Nikolaevich

MAYSTRENKO, Valery Nikolaevich (b.8.9.1947 in Posyolok Novikovka of Karmaskalinsky Raion of the BASSR), Chemist. Associate Member of the AS RB (2006), D.Sci. (Chemical Sciences) (1990), Full Professor (1992). Merited Master of Sciences of the RB (2001). Graduated from the BSU (1970), since 1975 he worked...

MIKHAYLOV, Kirill Andreyevich

MIKHAYLOV, Kirill Andreyevich (b.2.4. 1983, Derevnya Kayrakovo of Mishkinsky Raion of the BASSR), Athlete. Merited Master of Sports (cross‑country skiing) of Russia (2006). Awarded with the 4th Class Order for Merits to the Fatherland (2010), Order of Friendship (2014), Order for Merits to the Republic...

MIRONENKO, Ivan Ivanovich

MIRONENKO, Ivan Ivanovich (20.6. 1915, Khutor Dolotinovka of the Don Cossack Host Republic – 30.10.1989, Ufa), Architect. Merited Architect of the RSFSR (1974). Awarded with the Order of Red Banner (1941), Order of Red Star (1942). Participant of the Great Patriotic War. After graduating from the Moscow...

MIYAKINSKY RAION

MIYAKINSKY RAION, located in the SW of the RB. Established on August 20, 1930 as Kirgiz‑Miyakinsky Raion. From September 20, 1933 has its current name. Abolished on February 1, 1963, territory became part of Alysheyevsky Raion. Newly established on January 13, 1965. Territory – 2,051 km2. Adm. centre...

MOLNIYA

MOLNIYA Ufa Scientific and Research Enterprise, AO. It develops, revamps and manufactures the ignition systems and electronic control equipment for aircraft gas turbine engines. Manufactures plugs and ignition units for all aircrafts, electronic control systems for the powerplants of various types of...

MY BASHKIRS, GET READY TO STUDY!

MY BASHKIRS, GET READY TO STUDY! (Bashkorttarym, ukyu kerek!), a poem. Written in the second half of the 19th century. In it, M.Akmulla appeals to the Bashkir people to become educated, both to master various trades and crafts and to attain general higher degree of knowledge. The author compares educated...

NAFIKOVA, Ferdaus Mukhametvaleevna

NAFIKOVA, Ferdaus Mukhametvaleevna (20.3.1938, Ufa – 26.1.2008, Ibid.), Ballet Dancer. People’s (1974) and Merited (1971) Artist of RSFSR, Merited Artist of BASSR (1963). Laureate of the Salavat Yulayev Award of the BASSR (1977). Awarded with the Order of the Badge of Honor (1981). After graduating...

NANOTECHNOLOGIES

NANOTECHNOLOGIES, ways of creating nanoscale structures, imparting useful propertiesto materials and devices. Since the early 90s, research was initiated by IMSP and USATU to receive nanostructured materials using severe plastic deformation (in the quantity of several dozens to hundreds of units) in...

NEFTEKHIMIK

NEFTEKHIMIK, the Palace of Sports of OOO Agidel‑Sputnik. Located in Salavat. Built in 1972 by the Salavat Petrochemical Plant (see Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat), from 2007 it came under the jurisdiction of OOO Salavatsportservice, since 2017 it has the current status. After the renovation works in 2010–12,...

NUR

NUR (Ray) Ufa State Tatar Theatre. Established in 1989 as a theatre studio, since 1991 – its current name and status. The first Chief Stage Dir. – B.N.Ibragimov (1991–95). The repertoire of the initial period mainly included the works of classical drama. The performances of these years were characterized...

OIL CROPS

OIL CROPS, the plants cultivated to produce fatty oils. O.c. include plants of various families: Asteraceae (sunflower, safflower); Fabaceae (soy); Brassicaceae (mustard, rapeseed, camelina, etc.); Euphorbiaceae (castorbean); Lamiaceae (perilla), etc. Fatty oil is also obtained from germs of corn, wheat...

PETROCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS

PETROCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS, large capacity production of organic and inorganic products based on petroleum hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases. Production of petrochemical products was commissioned, in Bashkortostan, at the Ufa Oil Refinery, Ishimbay gasoline, pyrolysis (No.411) and sulfuric plants during...