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The regional interactive encyclopedic portal «Bashkortostan»
Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan State autonomous institution of science of the Republic of Bashkortostan Bashkir encyclopedia

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JASPER, sedimentary siliceous rock. The structure is crypto‑crystalline, the texture is massive. The various shades of red, yellow, brown, bluish‑gray, green, purple colours are caused by the presence of mainly iron and manganese oxides, an admixture of epidote and other minerals. Also, there is mottled,...


JAZZ, a form of music art. In the early 40s of the 20th century, the arising interest in J. in Bashkortostan was facilitated by the concert and tour activity of the leading pop and jazz bands and musicians of the country. Further development of jazz art is connected with the creative work of large orchestras...


“JINGLING VALLEY”, is a Bashkir ethnic song, uzun-kuy. The legend and poetic lyrics were first registered in the 1930’s. By M.A. Burangulov,  they  are  published  in  “Bashkir ethnic art. songs” collection (book 1, 1974) by S.A. Galin. The song is lyrical and psychologi­ cal. According to one of the...


JUDICIAL AUTHORITY, an independent branch of state authority, empowered to implement justice and legal control, as well as interprete laws, etc. J.a. is exercised by courts represented by judges, jury and arbitrators. The Bashkortostan Revolutionary Tribunal and the Council of People’s Judges of the...


JULIAN (13th century), Hungarian Traveler, Monk. Undertook two journeys in search of the historical ancestors of the Hungarians and the history of the conversion of its inhabitants to Catholic faith. The details of the first journey (1235–37) were recorded in the words of J. by Monk Richard for the...